Harm from Thimerosal: A compilation of peer reviewed studies

harm from thimerosal  - Depositphotos 6483354 smaller 150x150 - Harm from Thimerosal: A compilation of peer reviewed studiesMercury Free Baby in cooperation with The Coalition for Mercury-free Drugs (CoMed) has put together a compilation of studies showing harm from Thimerosal (also referred to as Thiomersal) found in vaccines.

Please click the small green plus sign icon in the far left column to see the FINDINGS of the study.

Authors
Year
Journal
Cmp
General type of study
Model System
Type of Study
More Specific Focus
When Exposed
Sex-dependent
Finding
de Magalhães Silva et al. 2020 Int J Biol Macromol. TM tissue culture human Histological analysis TM interaction with human hemoglobin na na TM interacts with hemoglobin, leading to structural conformation changes; decreases Hb-O2 binding capacity by up to 72% at physiological conditions; induces protein glycation and amyloid formation in human hemoglobin; Hb-Cys93 residues are blocked by ethylmercury transferred from thimerosal
Lin et al. 2019 Microchemical Journal TM analytical animal (MD/μFPCAVD/ICPMS) in vivo quantification of Hg in extracellular fluid/rat brains from TM na na patterns of brain extracellular mercury after thimerosal administration were similiar to that of methylmercury
Noshadian et al. 2019 J Chem Neuroanat. TM histological animal Histological analysis protective effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid against THIM-induced effects na na brain cell loss, abnormal changes in neuroimmune cells (p < 0.05), prefrontal cortex volume (p < 0.05), and the glutathione content of prefrontal cortex
Ramos et al. 2019 Chem Biol Interact. TM histological yeast Histological analysis compared toxic effects of MeHg and EtHg in Saccharomyces cerevisiae na na MeHg and EtHg inhibited cell growth, decreased membrane integrity, and increased the granularity and production of reactive species (RS)
Afsordeh et al. 2019 Drug Chem Toxicol. TM histo/behavioral animal Histological analysis Assessed prefrontal lobe/rat brains exposed to Thimerosal na na the ethylmercury caused abnormal neurogenic inflammatory reactions and alterations in the neuroimmune cells that lasted for a longer period in the brain than in the blood
Chen et al. 2019 Eur J Pharm Biopharm. TM histo/behavioral animal Histological analysis immunogenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) virus na na reduced binding activity was observed between HPV antigens and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) upon thimerosal treatment, accompanied by reduced protein conformational stability
Namvarpour et al. 2018 J Appl Biotechnol Rep. TM histo/behavioral animal histo/behavioral impairments of social/stereotyped behaviors postnatal na impairments of locomotor activity and their social interactions were reduced. While the duration of freezing/grooming as stereotyped behaviors were increased significantly. The results of histological studies also showed a noteworthy decrease in the number of Purkinje cells in both sexes.
Cao et al. 2018 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. EtHg histological minnow Histological analysis acute and sublethal effect of EtHg 4months na very high accumulation of EtHg with necrosis, telangiectasis and exfoliation of epithelial cells in the gill, as well as edema, vacuoles, and pyknotic nuclei in hepatocytes; plus new species diethylmercury
Laudati et al. 2018 Neurotoxicology. TM tissue culture human Histological analysis examining Resveratral effects on TM damage na na decreased the protein expression of transcription factor Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator
Bianchini et al. 2018 Metallomics. TM tissue culture fruit fly MTT assay
neurotoxic effects of TM, incl. malfunction of the monoaminergic system na na impaired DA function and behavioral abnormalities, ultimately causing oxidative stress-related neurotoxicity.
Santos et al. 2018 Int J Biol Macromol. TM tissue culture bovine bovine serum albumin interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and TM na na both TM and EtHgCl accelerate the protein fibrillation kinetics
Geier et al. 2018 Int J Hyg Environ Health. TM epidemiology human case control TM exposure from Hib and risk of autism, developmental delay, psychomotor disorder significant relationship between TM exposure from Hib and risk of autism, developmental delay, psychomotor disorder
Geier et al. 2018 J Trace Elem Med Biol. TM epidemiology human cross-sectional TM exposure from Hep B vaccine and risk of ADHD postnatal males more affected significant relationship between TM exposure from Hep B vaccine and risk of ADHD
Kern et al. 2018 Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). TM outcome analysis human outcome analysis Neurotoxicants and male vulnerability na males more affected TM exposure disproportionately affects males
Geier et al. 2018 Int J Environ Res Public Health. TM epidemiology human cross-sectional TM exposure from Hep B vaccine and risk of Special Ed TM exposure from Hep B vaccine and risk of Special Ed na significant relationship between TM exposure from Hep B vaccine and risk of Special Ed
Afsordeh et al. 2018 Drug Chem Toxicol. TM animal model animal Wistar rats immune cells na na ethylmercury caused abnormal neurogenic inflammatory reactions and alterations in the neuroimmune cells that remained for a longer period in the brain than in the blood (immune cells [mast cells (MCs) and microglia] and pro-neuroinflammation cytokines (interleukin-1b and tumor necrosis factor-α))
Namvarpour et al. 2018 Neurotoxicol Teratol. TM animal model animal male Wistar rats protective effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid postnatal na Thimerosal significantly impacted locomotor activity, and impaired social and stereotyped behaviors.
Santos et al. 2018 Int J Biol Macromol. TM tissue culture animal bovine serum albumin interaction with TM na na TM causes structural changes in the polypeptide chain of thebovine serum albumin; both TM and EtHgCl accelerate the protein fibrillation kinetics in 42 and 122%, respectively, indicating the toxicity of these compounds in biological systems.
Pantaleão et al. 2017 Endocr Connect. TM tissue culture animal rat thyroid tissue the effect of TM on thyroid hormones na na TM might directly interact with deiodinases, inhibiting their activity probably by binding to their selenium catalytic site
Donahue et al. 2017 Vaccine TM epidemiology human case control TM containing vaccines and fetal death prenatal na pregnant women who get the flu vaccine and the H1N1 vaccine are more likely to lose the fetus; over half of the flu vaccines and the H1N1 vaccine contain Thimerosal
Gibson et al. 2017 Metallomics. TM tissue culture human human red cells Compared Hg and RBC interaction na na TM had slightly more affinity in binding with RBC hemoglobin than methylHg
Geier et al. 2017 J Trace Elem Med Biol. TM epidemiology human case-control TM exposure postnatal na TM exposure increased the risk of an autism diagnosis
Branco et al. 2017 Redox Biol. EtHg tissue culture human human neuronal cells SH-SY5Y na na Impaired cross-talk between the thioredoxin and glutathione systems and increased oxidative stress and EtHg depleted GSH; EtHg more toxic than MeHg
Geier et al. 2017 Dose Response. TM epidemiology human case-control examined the relationship of TM and Tic disorder, ASD and ADHD postnatal males more affected dose dependednt relationship found between exposure to TM in infancy and tic disorder, ASD, and ADHD, all which have similar abnormal brain connectivity disorder, ACSD
Leslie et al. 2017 Front Psychiatry. TM clinical human national sample of privately insured children compared the prior year's occurrence of vaccinations in children and adolescents aged 6-15 years with the above neuropsychiatric disorders postnatal na influenza vaccinations during the prior 3, 6, and 12 months were also associated with incident diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (AN), OCD, and an anxiety disorder; and meningitis with AN and chronic tic disorder
Geier et al. 2017 Brain Inj. TM epidemiology human case-control evaluated Hg exposure from Thimerosal in hepatitis B vaccines and a diagnosis of emotional disturbances postnatal males more affected significant relationship between Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of an emotional disturbances diagnosis
Geier et al. 2016 Med Sci Monit. TM epidemiology human case-control a two-phase assessment of autism rates following the reduction of Thimerosal us in childhood vaccines in the late 1990s early 2000s postnatal no the risk of autism during from the late1990s to early 2000s in the US significantly decreased with reductions in Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines
Haase et al. 2016 Arch Toxicol. TM tissue culture human neutrophil neutrophil extracellular traps na na TM caused the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)/ autoantibodies
Geier et al. 2016 Brain Sci. TM epidemiology human VSD assessed the toxicological effects of bolus exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and ADHD postnatal no increasing organic-Hg exposure from TCVs heightens the risk of a ADHD diagnosis
Geier et al. 2016 J Epidemiol Glob Health. TM epidemiology human VSD valuate the relationship between exposure to Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines and specific delays in development postnatal no Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines are associated with specific delays in development
Lohren et al. 2016 BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. TM tissue culture animal pig brains compares ethyl-, methyl-, and inorganic Hg toxicty and transfer across blood brain barrier na na methyl- and ethyl-Hg both cross the blood brain barrier both ways and are similarly toxic. Inorganic Hg crosses out but not into the brain
Zerbo 2016 JAMA Pediatr TM epidemiology human cohort study to investigate the association between influenza infection and vaccination during pregnancy and ASD risk. prenatal na increased ASD risk among children whose mothers received an influenza vaccination in their first trimester
Suwalsky et al. 2016 J Membr Biol. TM tissue culture human human erythrocyte membrane to understand the molecular mechanisms of the toxic effect of TM on classes of phospholipids in outer and inner monolayers of human erythrocyte membrane na na TM interacted in a concentration-dependent manner with bilayers, and in vitro interacted with erythrocytes inducing morphological changes
Zieminska et al. 2016 Toxicology TM tissue culture animal rat cerebellar granule cells to test if various suspected developmental neurotoxins can alter SNAP-25 mRNA and protein expression in neurons na na TM reduced SNAP-25 mRNA levels to 69% of the control: SNAP-25 is implicated in hyperactivity and cognitive abilities in some neuropsychiatric disorders
Guida et al. 2016 Toxicol Sci. TM tissue culture animal infant male rats to investigate the effect of HDAC inhibition on thimerosal-induced neurotoxicity in neuroblastoma cells and cortical neurons postnatal ? Thimerosal, at 0.5 μM in SH-SY5Y cells and at 1 μM in neurons, caused cell death by activation of apoptosis, MC1568 prevented thimerosal-induced HDAC4 increase
Yoshida et al. 2016 Neurotoxicology. EtHg tissue culture animal mouse brain to examine whether MeHg and EtHg affects the ciliary movementof ventricular ependymal cells in the mouse brain na na Ependymal cell cilia movement inhibited by MeHg and EtHg in a concentration-dependent manner around concentrations reported to cause poisoning in humans with subsequent inhibition of CSF flow
Geier et al. 2016 N Am J Med Sci. TM epidemiology human human children Thimerosal and obesity postnatal no cases diagnosed with obesity were significantly more likely than controls to have received greater exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines
Choi et al. 2016 Toxicol Sci. EtHg tissue culture animal mouse kidney mechanism of toxicity was explored in vitro in HK-2 cells na na EtHg dose-dependently increased the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, activated the unfolded protein response, and increased cytosolic Ca2+ levels in HK-2 cells. Cell death induced by EtHg exposure was caused by autophagy and necrosis.
Stamogiannos et al. 2016 ACS Med Chem Lett. TM tissue culture human virtual screening followed by in vitro evaluation to discover novel inhibitors of ER aminopeptidase 1, na na cell-based analysis indicated TM effectively reduces ERAP1-dependent cross-presentation by dendritic cells in a dose-dependent manner
Al-Saleh et al. 2016 Int J Hyg Environ Health. TM clinical human measured Hg levels and oxidative stress markers T Hg in infants hair and mothers hair and urine; metylHg maesured in mothers hair and blood and infants hair pre- and post-natal na urinary total Hg, hair total Hg, and hair methyl Hg varied significantly with the timing of TM exposure from vaccines
de Oliveira Souza et al. 2016 J Toxicol Environ Health A. TM tissue culture animal rat cerebral cell proteome rat cerebral cell proteome following exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) or ethylmercury (EtHg) given IM na na both MeHg and EtHg exposure induced an overexpression of calbindin, a protein that acts as a neuroprotective agent In contrast, MeHg-exposed animals shoewed increased expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), a protein involved in antioxidant defense.
Pletz et al. 2016 Toxicology. TM dose-response data studies in vivo and in vitro merury studies dose-response data from in vitroandin vivoorganic mercury toxicity studies fit the Druckrey-Küpfmüller equation na na Druckrey-Küpfmüller equation describes well the dose-response characteristics of organic mercury induced neurotoxic effects
Waly et al. 2016 Oxid Med Cell Longev. TM tissue culture human SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells effects of TM on methinine synthase and B12 na na TM treatment decreased cellular levels of glutathionylcobalamin and methylcobalamin (B12), indicating alternatively spliced forms of methionine synthase expressed in SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells are sensitive to inhibition by TM and neurotoxic metals
Dorea et al. 2016 Environ Res. TM clinical human human children neurodevelopmental outcomes in Amazonian children with methyl- and ethylmercury exposure pre- and post-natal na combined (methyl- and ethyl-Hg) exposure showed significant decrease in both Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index scores at 24 months; plus significant delays in Bayley Scale of Infant Development
Geier et al. 2015 Interdiscip Toxicol. TM epidemiology human case-control evaluated automated medical records for exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines and tic disorder postnatal na Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB) administered at specific intervals in the first six-months-of-life is associated with tic disorder
Galluccio et al. 2015 Toxicol Sci. TM tissue culture bacteria E. Coli bacteria effect of mercury compounds was tested on the organic cation transporter, hOCTN1 na na TM inhibited organic cation transporter, hOCTN1
LaVoie et al. 2015 J Biol Inorg Chem TM tissue culture bacteria E. Coli bacteria effects of inorganic and organic Hg compounds on thiol and metal homeostases na na cells bound Hg(II) and phenylmercuric (PMA) acetate in excess of their available thiol ligands; X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated nitrogens as likely additional ligands.PMA and MT made stable cysteine monothiol adducts in many Fe-binding proteins, but stable Hg(II) adducts were only seen in CysXxx(n)Cys peptides. PMA and TM made stable cysteine monothiol adducts in many Fe-binding proteins, but stable Hg(II) adducts were only seen in CysXxx(n)Cys peptides.
Geier et al. 2015 J Epidemiol Glob Health. TM epidemiology human human children Thimerosal and specific delays in development postnatal males more affected infants receiving increased Hg doses from T-HBVs administered within the first month, the first 2months, and the first 6months of life were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with specific delays in development
Niehoff et al. 2015 Anal Chem. TM tissue culture animal Drosophila melanogaster mercury distribution for the three species mercury(II) chloride, methylmercury chloride and thimerosal after intoxication na na mercury levels in brain for methylmercury chloride and thimerosal exceeded the fed concentration indicating mercury enrichment
Lohren et al. 2015 Metallomics. TM tissue culture animal porcine in vitro model of the blood-CSF barrier investigate the effects of organic as well as inorganic mercury compounds on, and their transfer across blood-CSF barrier na na Thimerosal more toxic that methylHg and transfer of organic mercury compounds out of the CSF, not inorganic
Rempel et al. 2015 Arch Toxicol. TM tissue culture animal neuroectoderm from pluripotent stem cells (UKN1) test system of developmental toxicity, related to the generation of neuroectoderm from pluripotent stem cells na na enzyme inhibition at concentrations below benchmark concentration and full inhibition of caspase-3 activity
Eid et al. 2015 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol TM tissue culture animal rat immunological effects of swine flu vaccine containing TM, adjuvant, and H1N1 vaccine injected into rats postnatal na squalene and TM contributed to regiment of adverse reactions and symptoms, which act as detergents instead of its helper role; with negative immunological effects;the biological hazards were more pronounced when act together as whole vaccine than they act individually
Lohren et al. 2015 J Trace Elem Med Biol. TM tissue culture human human neurons and human astrocytes compared toxic effects of MeHg chloride, TM, mercury chloridein differentiated human neurons and human astrocytes na na neurons more susceptible to Hg induced cytotoxicity compared to astrocytes. Massive cellular mercury uptake in the differentiated neurons. The organic compounds exerted stronger cytotoxic effects as compared to inorganic HgCl2. In contrast to HgCl2exposure, organic Hg compounds seem to induce the apoptotic cascade in neurons following low-level exposure.
Rodrigues et al. 2015 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol TM tissue culture human rat and human (liver and neuroblastoma cells) determine effects of TM and its breakdown product EtHg on thioredoxin system and NADP+-dependent dehydrogenases na na TM and EtHg inhibited the thioredoxin system enzymes, EtHg was comparable to MeHg, mechanism of toxicity encompasses the blockage of electrons from NADPH via thioredoxin system; decreased cell viability
Haase 2015 Arch Toxicol. TM tissue culture human neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) investigates the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to TM na na triggered NADPH oxidase-independent production of ROS, which are likely to be involved in mercurial-induced NET formation; this could be one step in the series of events leading to autoimmunity
Rose et al. 2015 J Toxicol. TM tissue culture human lymphoblastoid cell lines lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from individuals with autism and unaffected controls exposed to ethylmercury na na autism LCLs exhibited greater reduction in ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, and reserve capacity, compared to control LCLs
Geier et al. 2015 Biol Trace Elem Res. TM epidemiology human children human children subjects with PDD (n = 534) in comparison to controls in the VSD and exposure to TM in Haemophilus influenzae Type b vaccine first 15 months of life males more affected association found between TM exposure and a PDD diagnosis
Galluccio et al. 2014 Toxicol Sci. TM tissue culture bacteria human OCTN1 transport protein mutants of hOCTN1 in which Cys residues substituted by Ala constructed, over-expressed in E. coli and purified. na na ethyl mercury (Thimerosal) inhibited hOCTN1 as well. C50A, C50A/C136A and, at very lower extent C136A, showed increased IC50 indicating that C50 was the major target of this mercury compound.
Sakamoto et al. 2014 Toxicol & Environ Chem EtHg tissue culture animal C8-B4 mouse brain cells cell membrane participate in the Ca2+ uptake that is induced by ethyl mercury na na ethyl mercury may induce Ca2+ uptake through the P2X7 receptor of the cell membrane
Hornos Carneiro et al. 2014 Environ Toxicol. TM tissue culture human human kidney cells determine the potential cytotoxic mechanisms of thimerosal on human kidney cells na na (1) thimerosal induces kidney epithelial cell apoptosis via upregulating Bax and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and (2) thimerosal is a potential pro-fibrotic agent in human kidney cells.
Carneiro et al. 2014 Environ Res. TM tissue culture animal mice evaluate kinetics of Hg species in mice after IM injection of TM, by estimating Hg half-lives in blood and tissues na na Estimated half-lives (in days) were 8.8 for blood, 10.7 for brain, 7.8 for heart, 7.7 for liver and 45.2 for kidney.
Geier et al. 2014 J Biochem Pharmacol Res TM epidemiology human children human children risk of neurodevelopmental disorders following a Thimerosal-preserved DTaP compared to its Thimerosal-reduced formulation early infancy males more affected cases autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, or ND were significantly more likely than controls to have received Thimerosal-preserved DTaP vaccine (exposed) in comparison to Thimerosal-reduced DTaP vaccine
Geier et al. 2014 N Am J Med Sci. TM epidemiology human children human children Thimerosal-containing Hep B vaccination and risk for specific delays in development first six months of life males more affected cases were significantly more likely than controls to have received increased organic-mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine administered in the first, second, and sixth month of life.
Geier et al. 2014 Int J Environ Res Public Health. TM epidemiology human children human children dose dependent relationship between TM exposure and NDs first six months of life males more affected per microgram, PDD, specific developmental delay, tic disorder, and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure
Koh et al. 2014 Mol Brain. TM tissue culture mouse microglia and neuron cultures zinc, MMP, and BDNF levels after TM exposure na na TM caused elevated zinc, MMP, and BDNF levels that can cause the hyperconnectivity found in ASD
Loison et al. 2014 Hum Vaccin Immunother. TM tissue culture human human dendritic cells non-toxic concentrations of TM on DC maturation and functions na na nanomolar concentrations of thimerosal prevented LPS-induced DC maturation
Loison et al. 2014 PLoS One. TM tissue culture human human primary human T cells na na induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, generation of reactive oxygen species, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and caspase-3 activation. Moreover, exposure to non-toxic concentrations of thimerosal induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of TCR-activated T cells, and inhibition of the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN gamma, IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, IL-2, as well as the chemokine MCP1.
Li et al. 2014 Toxicol Sci. TM tissue culture and functional testing animal mice brain tissue and developmental testing first 4 months of life males more affected neural development delay, social interaction deficiency, and inclination of depression; alternation of a number of canonical pathways involving neuronal development, neuronal synaptic function, dysregulation of endocrine system
Trumpler et al. 2014 J Trace Elem Med Biol. TM tissue culture human human blood human whole blood and physiological simulation solutions na na analogous behaviour of methylmercury and ethylmercury species in human blood was shown and an ethylmercury-glutathione adduct was identified.
Dorea et al. 2014 J Toxicol Environ Health A. TM clinical human human children Gesell Development Schedule (GDS) on children from two villages in Brazil postnatal na children in the village with higher mercury exposure from maternal fish consumption and postnatal TCV had a significantly more severely affected children
Pieper et al. 2014 Metallomics. TM tissue culture human human human astrocytes na na strongly disturbed poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, a signalling reaction induced by DNA strand breaks
Zhang et al. 2014 Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. TM tissue culture human human human Chang conjunctival cells na na acute exposure to thimerosal induces antiproliferative properties, apoptosis, and autophagy activation in human Chang conjunctival cells
Staab et al. 2014 PLoS Genet. TM tissue culture animal nematode (roundworm) transcriptome RNA sequencing to identify genes controlled by the SKN-1/Nrf2 negative regulator WDR-23 in the nervous system na na increased nuclear SKN-1::GFP in the intestine and also increased Pnlg-1::gfp fluorescence in motor neurons (TM interferes with brain structural proteins)
Wehe et al. 2014 Anal Bioanal Chem. TM tissue culture human human human astrocytes na na many-fold higher levels of Hg were present in the cells with exposure to organic Hg compounds than inorganic Hg compounds
Marques et al. 2014 Environ Pollut. TM clinical human human children children in Brazil postnatal males more affected negativelly impacted children's psychomotor developement
Geier et al. 2013 Transl Neurodegener. TM epidemiology human children human children US children in the VSD and VAERS postnatal na Increased risk of an ASD diagnosis
Grønborg et al. 2013 JAMA Pediatr. TM epidemiology human children human children children (about 1.5 million) born in Denmark between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2004 postnatal na decrease in the rate of ASD with the removal of TM from vaccines
Chen et al. 2013 World J Pediatr. TM tissue culture and functional testing animal rat premature SD rats at a dose of 32.8, 65.6, 98.4 or 131.2 μg/kg postnatal day 1 na expression of DRD4 and 5-HT2AR and learning function decreased, and apoptosis increased significantly in the 131.2 μg/kg group, Memory function was significantly impaired by 65.6 (P<0.05), 98.4 and 131.2 μg/kg (P<0.001)
Zimmermann et al. 2013 Neurotoxicology. TM tissue culture animal rat rat glioma cell na na significant cytotoxicity (p<0.0001) was observed; ethyl and methyl comparative; both transported by LAT equally
Goldman 2013 Hum Exp Toxicol. TM epidemiology human human children VAERS database during three consecutive flu seasons beginning 2008/2009 prenatal na increased prenatal TM exposure resulted in an 11-fold increased fetal-loss rate
Sharpe et al. 2013 J Toxicol. TM tissue culture human human B-lymphocytes taken from individuals with autism, their nonautistic twins, and their nontwin siblings and controls. na na autism families showed thimerosal hypersensitivity, whereas none of the control individuals displayed this response.The thimerosal concentration required to inhibit cell proliferation in these individuals was only 40% of controls. Cells hypersensitive to thimerosal also had higher levels ofoxidative stress markers, protein carbonyls, and oxidant generationprotein carbonyls, and oxidant generation.
Abdel-Rahman 2013 J Applied Pharmaceutical Science TM tissue culture animal adult mice brain tissue adults na elevated brain nitric oxide and decreased brain glutathione levels, neuron degeneration and brain holes
Madhadiyeva et al. 2012 Immunology TM tissue culture human human HLA-B27 cells human HLA-B27 cells na na induced MHC class I dimmers, the formation of which may provide novel structures for recognition by the immune system.
Guzzi et al. 2012 Interdiscip Toxicol. TM tissue culture human human Jurkat T cells, a human T leukemia cell line na na caused a significant decrease in cellular viability at 1 μM (25%, p<0.05; IC50: 10 μM). Methyl mercury exhibited a significant decrease in cellular viability at 50 μM (33%, p<0.01; IC50: 65 μM). Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) did not show any significant change in cellular survival.
Zimmer et al. 2012 Environ Health Perspect TM tissue culture human human neural crest cells na na reduced NC cell migration at least as potently and effectively as CH3HgCl (lowest effective concentration in the range of 1–5 nM), whereas inorganic mercury (HgCl2) was about 10-fold less potent
li et al. 2012 PLoS One. TM tissue culture animal mouse mouse C2C12 myoblast cells na na thimerosal induces S phase arrest and finally causes apoptosis via inhibition of PI3K/Akt/survivin signaling followed by activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway
Mrozek-Budzyn et al. 2012 Neurotoxicol Teratol. TM epidemiology human children human children 196 infants born between January 2001 and March 2003 to mothers in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy in Krakow prenatal na an adverse effect of neonatal TCV exposure was observed for the psychomotor development index (PDI) only in the 12th and 24th months of life. The overall deficit in the PDI attributable to neonatal TCV exposure measured over the course of the three-year follow-up (GEE) was significantly higher in TCV group.
Blanuša et al. 2012 J Biomed Biotechnol. TM tissue culture and urine animal rat infants whole blood and urine and mass fractions of mercury in organs (kidneys, liver, brain, small intestine, and large intestine) early postnatal life na TM-exposed group mercury retention was higher in the brain, enteral excretion was similar, and urinary excretion was much lower compared to HgCl(2)-exposed sucklings.
Sharpe et al. 2012 J Toxicol. TM tissue culture human brain human astrocytes na na inhibits mitochondrial respiration leading to a drop in the steady state membrane potential, but also concurrent with these phenomena increases the formation of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and Fenton/Haber-Weiss generated hydroxyl radical. These oxidants increase the levels of cellular aldehyde/ketones. Additionally, we find a five-fold increase in the levels of oxidant damaged mitochondrial DNA bases and increases in the levels of mtDNA nicks and blunt-ended breaks.
Khan et al. 2012 J Physiol Pharmacol. TM tissue culture brain rats cerebellum prenatal males more affected expression of suppressor-of-white-apricot-1 (SWAP-1), a gene negatively regulated by T3, was increased in TM-exposed males (61.1% increase), but not in females; (p<0.05). Positively regulated T3-target genes, Purkinje cell protein 2 (Pcp2; p=0.07) and Forkhead box protein P4 (FoxP4; p=0.08), showed a trend towards decreased expression in TM-exposed males. The expression of deiodinase 2 (DIO2) showed a trend towards an increase in TM-exposed females,
Ye et al. 2012 Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. TM tissue culture human eyes conjunctival epithelial cells na na DNA single- and double-strand breaks
Ida-Eto et al. 2012 Brain Dev. TM tissue culture brain rats brain prenatal na lasting impairment of brain monoaminergic system
Dorea et al. 2012 J Biomed Biotechnol. TM clinical human children human children Amazonian infants na na a higher score of neurological development at six months was negatively associated with exposure to additional TCV-EtHg
Chauvat et al. 2012 J Immunol Methods. TM tissue culture immune human T cells in vitro na na abortive activation of T cells followed by cell death
Duszczyk-Budhathoki et al. 2012 Neurochem Res. TM tissue culture brain rats rat prefrontal cortex infant na rapid increase of glutamate overflow
Sulkowski et al. 2012 Cerebellum. TM tissue culture brain rats cerebellum infant males more affected aberrant cerebellar oxidative stress, thyroid hormone metabolism, and motor behavior in rat pups
Barile et al. 2012 J Pediatr Psychol. TM clinical human children human children neuropsychological tests early life males more affected presence of tics
Ida-Eto et al. 2011 Neurosci Lett. TM tissue culture animal rat infants early development of serotonergic neurons embryonic exposure na dramatic increase in the number of serotonergic neurons localized to the lateral portion of the caudal raphe was observed
Secor et al. 2011 Int J Toxicol. TM tissue culture vascular mouse aortic endothelial cell na na induced phospholipase D activation, induced upstream phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) leading to downstream threonine phosphorylation of PLD(1), and caused loss of intracellular glutathione
Olczak et al. 2011 Behav Brain Res. TM animal model animal rat infants behavioral tests early postnatal life males more affected impairments of locomotor activity and increased anxiety/neophobia, prosocial interactions was reduced, frequency of asocial/antisocial interactions was increased in males, but decreased in females, marked decline in the density of striatal D2 receptors
Asadi et al. 2010 Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. TM tissue culture human human cells human leukemic cultured LAD2 mast cells na na induced significant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
Hunter et al. 2010 Dis Model Mech. TM tissue culture animal nematodes single neuroligin gene na na single neuroligin gene (nlg-1) mutants were significantly more sensitive than wild-type animals to both inorganic (HgCl2) and organic thimerosal
Olczak et al.a 2010 Folia Neuropathol. TM animal model animal rat infants brain early postnatal life na degeneration of neurons and "dark" neurons in the prefrontal and temporal cortex, the hippocampus and the cerebellum, pathological changes of the blood vessels in the temporal cortex, diminished synaptophysin reaction in the hippocampus, atrophy of astroglia in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and positive caspase-3 reaction in Bergmann astroglia
Wyrembek et al. 2010 J Physiol Pharmacol. TM animal model animal rats hippocampal neurons na na damaged a significant proportion of neurons after 60-90 min exposure; reduced both NMDA and GABA responses
Gallagher & Goodman 2010 J Toxicol Environ Health A. TM epidemiology human children human children National Health Interview Survey 1997-2002, boys 3-17 yo, born before 1999 birth males more affected threefold greater odds for autism diagnosis
Olczak et al.b 2010 Neurochem Res. TM animal model animal rats brain early postnatal life na alterations in opiod recepters, degenerating neurons and loss of synaptic vesicle marker (synaptophysin)
Hewitson et al. a 2010 J Toxicol Environ Health A. TM animal model animal newborn primates tested nine survival, motor, and sensorimotor reflexes birth na delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes
Zieminska et al. 2010 Toxicology. TM animal model animal rats cerebellar granule cells na na induced the rise in the intracellular calcium and zinc concentration and decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential
Rodrigues et al. 2010 Arch Toxicol. TM animal model animal rats rat tissues (brain, heart, kidney and liver) and blood na na mercury in tissues and blood following TM treatment was predominantly found as Ino-Hg, but a considerable amount of Et-Hg was also found in the liver and brain.
Hewitson et al. b 2010 Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). TM animal model animal rhesus macaque infants amygdala growth 4 and 6 months na altered amygdala maturation
Paradis et al. 2010 Northeast Bioengineering Conference TM animal model animal snail neuronal patterns infant na a clear disruption of the baseline neuronal communication pattern when the extracted central nervous system is exposed to Thimerosal
Gardner et al. 2010 Toxicol Lett. TM tissue culture vascular human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro na na decreases IFN-gamma release
Migdal et al. 2010 Toxicology. TM tissue culture immune human dendritic cells na na a calcium (Ca2+) influx , induced glutathione (GSH) depletion and reactive oxygen species
Geier et al. 2010 Indian J Med Res. TM epidemiology human children human children Vaccine Safety Datalink, birth cohorts, 1990-1996, premature puberty birth-7 months and birth-13 months na increased rate ratios for premature puberty
Migdal et al. 2010 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. TM tissue culture immune human dendritic cells (DCs) na na induced DC activation, as monitored by CD86 and HLA-DR overexpression associated with the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 8, oxidative stress, monitored by ROS induction and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane
Geier et al. 2010 Med Sci Monit. TM tissue culture human and bacterial human and bacterial human neuroblastoma cells/bacterial cells na na relative toxicity indices (human neuroblastoma cells/bacterial cells) were 2-phenoxyethanol (4.6-fold) < phenol (12.2-fold) < Thimerosal (>330-fold), TM more toxic to human cells than bacteria
Marques et al. 2010 Acta Paediatr. TM clinical human infants human infants Gesell Developmental Schedules (GDS) test prenatal na GDS at 6 months was significantly associated with total mercury concentration of neonate's hair
Minami et al. 2010 Cell Biol Toxicol. TM tissue culture brain mice cerebellum and cerebrum na na expressed metallothionein (MT) messenger RNA
Geier et al. 2009 Toxicol Environ Chem. TM tissue culture human human neuroblastoma cells and fetal cells na na mitochondrial damage, reduced oxidative-reduction activity, cellualr degeneration, and cell death
Olczak et al. 2009 Brain Res. TM animal model rat infants rats brain, liver and kidneys early postnatal life no accumulates in the rat brain in significant amounts and remains there longer than 30 days after the injection and also increased pain threshold
Kuo et al. 2009 Hum Exp Toxicol. TM tissue culture immune human oral cancer cells na na killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner through apoptosis
Marques et al. 2009 Cogn Behav Neurol. TM clinical human infants human infants infant hair-Hg and Gesell schedules pre/post natal exposure to methyl and TM na GS at 6 months was significantly influenced by Hg exposure- methyl and TM
Hashimoto et al. 2009 Toxicol In Vitro. TM tissue culture animal rats thymocytes na na increases intracellular Zn(2+) concentration via decreasing cellular thiol content
Peltz et al. 2009 Int J Toxicol. TM tissue culture vascular bovine pulmonary artery ECs na na activates vascular endothelial cell (EC) phospholipase D (PLD), suggesting mechanisms of mercury vasculotoxicity
Minami et al. 2009 Toxicology. TM tissue culture brain mice metallothionein (MT) mRNAs in cerebellum microglia cell line, C8-B4 cells na na MT-1 mRNA significantly decreased
James et al. 2009 FASEB J. TM tissue culture human children lymphoblastoid cells (autistic vs controls) glutatione levels/redox na na thimerosal resulted in a greater decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio and increase in free radical generation in autism compared to control cells
Epstein et al. 2009 J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. TM tissue culture human human tissue conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells na ns ocular tissue damage
Tozzi et al. 2009 Pediatrics. TM epidemiology human children human children 10 y follow up of pertussis vaccine trial in 1992-3, neuropsych testing early postnatal life unclear girls with higher thimerosal intake had lower mean scores in the finger-tapping test with the dominant hand and in the Boston Naming Test
Branch 2009 Exp Toxicol Pathol. TM animal model animal male and female CD1 mice maximum tolerated dose adult mice males more affected gender-selective toxicity
Gallagher & Goodman 2008 Toxicolgy & Environmental Chemistry TM epidemiology human children human children National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2000, children aged 1–9 years early postnatal life males more affected boys given thimerosal (hep B) more susceptible to developmental disability than unvaccinated boys
Young et al. 2008 J Neurol Sci. TM epidemiology human children human children Vaccine Safety Datalink, birth-7 months and birth-13 months 3 months of age na increased rate ratios were observed for autism, autism spectrum disorders, tics, attention deficit disorder, and emotional disturbances
Geier et al. 2008 Neuro Endocrinol Lett. TM epidemiology human children human children maternal Rh-negativity assessed among 298 Caucasian children with NDs and known Rh-status prenatal na increases in maternal Rh-negativity among children with NDs, autism spectrum disorders, and attention-deficit-disorder/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
Eke & Celik 2008 Toxicol In Vitro. TM tissue culture human human cultured peripheral blood lymphocyte cells na na genotoxic and cytotoxic effect
Wu et al. 2008 Chem Res Toxicol. TM tissue culture human human interaction of thimerosal with topoisomerase II alpha and protein and nonprotein thiols and with DNA na na reacted rapidly with cysteine, GSH, human serum albumin, and single-stranded DNA to form ethylmercury adducts, inhibited the decatenation activity of DNA topoisomerase II alpha, induced single and double strand breaks in K562 cells were consistent with a rapid induction of apoptosis
Laurente et al. 2007 Anales de la Facultad de Medicina TM tissue culture animal hamsters 7 days old encephalon 7 days old na neurotoxic effects were also produced at encephalic level: at hippocampus (regions CA1, CA3 and DG), cerebral cortex, and cerebellum (Purkinje cells and granulose cells); with decrease in neuronal density, neuronal necrosis, axonal demyelinization, and gliosis.
Park et al. 2007 J Toxicol Environ Health A. TM tissue culture human and animal murine and human kidney cells na na cytotoxicity on renal cells
Liu et al. 2007 Toxicol Sci. TM tissue culture human human gastric cancer cells na na reduced cell viability, apoptosis, and induced [Ca2+](i) increases via Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space
Geier & Geier 2007 J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. TM epidemiology human children human children children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) na na children with ASDs (28.30%) were significantly more likely (odds ratio 2.35, 95% confidence interval 1.17-4.52, p < 0.01) to have Rh-negative mothers than controls (14.36%). Each ASD patient's mother was determined to have been administered a TCR during her pregnancy.
Nguyen et al. 2007 Eye Contact Lens. TM case report human human female eyes na na total limbal stem cell (LSC) failure and corneal opacification
Lawton et al. 2007 Toxicol In Vitro. TM tissue culture animal mice N2a neuroblastoma and rat C6 glioma cells na na impaired neurite outgrowth
Ribeiro et al. 2007 Neurosci Res. TM tissue culture animal mice brain neuroblastoma N1E-115 cell line na na blockade of the resting state, hyperpolarizing shifts of m(infinity) and h(infinity) curves, change in the voltage sensitivity and slower inactivating kinetics,
Geier & Geier 2007 J Toxicol Environ Health A. TM case series human children human children children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies and regressive autistic disorder na na significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDs observed and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho (D)-immune globulin preparations
Hagele et al. 2007 Int J Toxicol. TM tissue culture animal bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell na na endothelial lipid signaling enzyme, phospholipase D (PLD), enhanced reactive oxygen species generation, decrease of levels of total cellular thiols
Yole et al. 2007 Toxicology. TM tissue culture animal mice YAC-1 lymphoma cells na na induced microtubule depolymerization and inhibition of tubulin synthesis and/or beta-tubulin degradation
Karsen et al. 2007 J Infect Dev Ctries. TM case report human human 43 yo female given tetanus injection with recation to TM na na hypersensitivity, myelodysplastic syndrome and pancytopenia.
Havarinasab et al. 2007 Toxicology. TM tissue culture animal murine autoimmune syndrome na na activated the production of anti-fibrillarin autoantibodies (AFA), and induced a persistent Th1-skewed response
Agrawal 2007 J Leukoc Biol. TM tissue culture human human dendritic cells na na induced increased TH2 (IL-5 and IL-13) and decreased TH1 (IFN-gamma) cytokine secretion from the T cells, depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH)
Thompson et al. 2007 N Engl J Med. TM epidemiology human human children 1047 children between the ages of 7 and 10 years and administered standardized tests assessing 42 neuropsychological outcomes childhood vaccines males more affected increased risk of tics
Zheng & Dreskin 2007 Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. TM case report human human 31 yo female, response to skin prick test with TM na na generalized pruritus without hives, throat tightness, and a dry cough without wheezing on auscultation
Geier & Geier 2006 Med Sci Monit. TM epidemiology human human children Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 1991 through 2004 early postnatal life na reduction on neurodevelopmental disorders with decreased use of TM in vaccines
Orct et al. 2006 J Appl Toxicol. TM tissue culture animal rat infants distribution in blood and organs (kidney, liver and brain) na na high brain and blood concentrations
Lee et al. 2006 Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. TM tissue culture human human HeLa S epithelial cells na na apoptosis, reduced cell viability and intracellular glutathione levels, and increase of genomic DNA fragmentation
Goth et al. 2006 Environ Health Perspect. TM tissue culture animal murine dendritic cells na na altered ATP-mediated interleukin-6 secretion, initially enhancing the rate of cytokine secretion but suppressing cytokine secretion overall in DCs.
Geier & Geier 2006 Neuro Endocrinol Lett. TM epidemiology human human children Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), from 1994 through 2000 in the United States na na significantly increased adjusted (sex, age, vaccine type, vaccine manufacturer) risks of autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, personality disorders, thinking abnormalities, ataxia, and NDs in general, with minimal systematic error or confounding, were associated with TCV exposure
Geier & Geier 2006 J Toxicol Environ Health A. TM epidemiology human children human children Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), DTP and Hib vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccine, from 1994-1998 na na significantly increased odds ratios for autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, infantile spasms, and thinking abnormalities reported to VAERS were found following DTP vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccines
Woo et al. 2006 Mol Carcinog. TM tissue culture human human leukemia cells na na apoptosis, G(2)/M phase arrest, and DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner.
Herdman et al. 2006 Toxicol Sci. TM tissue culture human human SK N SH (Human neuroblastoma cell line) na na apoptosis in a neuroblastoma model via the cJun N-terminal kinase pathway
Havarinasab & Hultman 2006 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. TM tissue culture animal murine murine systemic autoimmune diseases na na induced glomerular, mesangial and systemic vessel wall immune-complex deposits and antinuclear antibodies (ANA)
Pérez et al. 2006 J Lipid Res. TM tissue culture human human U937 phagocytes na na blocks the conversion of Arachidonic acid into arachidonoyl-CoA, and a CoA-independent transacylase inhibitor that blocks the movement of AA within phospholipids
Slodownik & Ingber 2005 Contact Dermatitis. TM patch testing human human screening for contact dermatitis na na high proportion of mechanics (42.1%) among the patients who had positive reaction to thimerosal (P < 0.0001).
Burbacker et al. 2005 Environ Health Perspect. TM tissue culture animal infant monkeys mercury levels in the brain na na there was a higher percentage of the total mercury in the brain that was in the form of inorganic mercury for the Thimerosal-exposed monkeys (34% vs. 7%).
Yel et al. 2005 Int J Mol Med. TM tissue culture brain human neuronal cell na na induced apoptosis was associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, generation of reactive oxygen species, and release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to cytosol.
Mutkus et al. 2005 Biol Trace Elem Res. TM tissue culture animal Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells na na caused significant but selective changes in both glutamate transporter mRNA and protein expression in CHO cells
Havarinasab et al. 2005 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. TM tissue culture immune mice immune response na na initial immunosuppressive effects leading to a second phase with strong immunostimulation and autoimmunity, which is T-cell dependent, H-2 linked
Chang et al. 2005 Pharmacol Res. TM tissue culture human human osteoblast-like cells na na induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevation and subsequent cell death in human osteosarcoma cells; concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 microM thimerosal killed 33, 55 and 100% cells, respectively
Parran et al. 2005 Toxicol Sci. TM tissue culture human human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y cells) na na elevated levels of fragmented DNA appearing at 0.01 microM (apoptosis) to decrease at concentrations >1 microM (necrosis)
Geier & Geier 2005 Med Sci Monit. TM epidemiology human human children Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), (DTaP) vaccines, from 1997 through 2001 na na exposure to mercury from TCVs administered in the US was a consistent significant risk factor for the development of NDs
Lee-Wong et al. 2005 Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. TM case report human human patient who received an influenza vaccine na na generalized maculopapular eruption
Ueha-Ishibashi et al. 2005 Toxicol In Vitro. TM tissue culture animal young rats lymphocytes dissociated from thymic glands na na depolarized the membranes, associated with increasing the [Ca2+]I; induced an apoptotic change in membranes of almost all living cells
James et al. 2005 Neurotoxicology. TM tissue culture human human neuroblastoma cells and glioblastoma cells na na induced cytotoxicity was associated with depletion of intracellular GSH in both cell lines
Humphrey et al. 2005 Neurotoxicology. TM tissue culture human human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH na na accumulated in the mitochondria; cytochrome c was shown to leak from the mitochondria, followed by caspase 9 cleavage within 8 h of treatment. In addition, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was cleaved to form a 85 kDa fragment following maximal caspase 3 activation, apoptosis and oncosis/necrosis
Harry et al. 2004 Toxicol Lett. TM tissue culture animal neonatal mice 24 h and 7 days post-injection, total mercury concentrations were determined in blood, kidney, brain, and muscle na na Thimerosal IM injection resulted in 0.22 +/- 0.04% in the brain, and 1.7 +/- 0.3% in the kidney. By 7 days, mercury levels decreased in the blood but were unchanged in the brain.
Geier & Geier 2004 Int J Toxicol. TM epidemiology human human children Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), (DTaP) vaccines, from 1997 through 2000 na na evidence that administration of thimerosal-containing vaccines in the United States resulted in a significant number of children developing NDs
Jin et al. 2004 Neurosci Lett. TM tissue culture human human TRPV1, a receptor for capsaicin na na blocked the capsaicin-activated inward current (I(cap)) in cultured sensory neurons
Waly et al. 2004 Mol Psychiatry. TM tissue culture human human SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells na na inhibited both IGF-1- and dopamine-stimulated methylation with an IC(50) of 1 nM and eliminated MS activity
Ueha-Ishibashi et al. 2004 Toxicol In Vitro. TM tissue culture animal rats thymocytes na na induced decrease in cellular content of glutathione and apoptosis
Hornig et al. 2004 Mol Psychiatry. TM tissue culture and animal model animal mouse hippocampal neurons and neurological testing na na showed growth delay; reduced locomotion; exaggerated response to novelty; and densely packed, hyperchromic hippocampal neurons with altered glutamate receptors and transporters
Bultynck et al. 2004 Biochem J. TM tissue culture animal chicken B lymphoma cells na na induce isoform-specific conformational changes in the N-terminal part of IP3R1, leading to the formation of a highly IP3-sensitive Ca2+-release channel
Geier & Geier 2004 Med Sci Monit. TM epidemiology human human children Evaluations of the Biological Surveillance Summaries of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention childhood na evidence showing a direct relationship between increasing doses of mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders, and measles-containing vaccines and serious neurological disorders.
Havarinasab et al. 2004 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. TM tissue culture animal mouse A.SW mice na na induces in genetically susceptible mice a systemic autoimmune syndrome
Andrews et al. 2004 Pediatrics. TM epidemiology human human children 109 863 children who were born from 1988 to 1997 and were registered in general practices in the United Kingdom childhood vaccines males more affected increased risk of tics
Ueha-Ishibashi et al. 2004 Toxicology. TM tissue culture animal rat infants cerebellar neurons 2 weeks na increased the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in a concentration-dependent manner, decreased the cellular content of glutathione, and cytotoxic actions on cerebellar granule neurons
Nakao et al. 2003 Natural Science Research TM tissue culture human human K562 human leukemia cells na na potency of thimerosal to affect K562 cells was similar to that of methylmercury; inhibited the growth and increased the population of shrunken; hypodiploidal cells was also greatly increased; thimerosal-induced apoptosis
Qvarnström et al. 2003 Anal Chem. TM tissue culture animal mice organs na na was rapidly taken up in the organs of the mice (kidney, liver, and mesenterial lymph nodes),
Geier & Geier 2003 Pediatr Rehabil. TM epidemiology human human children Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) childhood vaccines na occurrence of neurodevelopmental disorders following thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines does not appear to be coincidental
Alexandre et al. 2003 Biol Cell. TM tissue culture animal mice mouse primary oocytes na na induces an instantaneous, complete and long-lasting microtubule interphasic network disassembly in mouse primary oocytes, correlated with the irreversible inhibition of meiosis reinitiation
Baskin et al. 2003 Toxicol Sci. TM tissue culture human human cultured human neurons and fibroblasts na na induces DNA breaks, caspase-3 activation, membrane damage, and cell death in cultured human neurons and fibroblasts
Jan et al. 2003 Pharmacol Toxicol. TM tissue culture animal canine Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells na na increases calcium levels in renal tubular cells
Koh et al. 2003 Australas J Dermatol. TM case report human human child 3.5 year old boy 11 days prior to reaction na Wells' syndrome
Alexandre et al. 2003 Mol Reprod Dev. TM tissue culture animal mice mouse oocyte na na irreversibly inhibits meiosis reinitiation in mouse oocyte
Jain et al. 2003 J Pharm Pharmacol. TM tissue culture animal guinea-pig cerebellar membranes na na inhibitor of the binding of [(3)H]mepyramine to histamine H(1) receptors in guinea-pig cerebellar membranes
Geier & Geier 2003 Exp Biol Med (Maywood). TM epidemiology human human children Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) childhood vaccines na an association between neurodevelopmental disorders and thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines was found
Westphal et al. 2003 Arch Toxicol. TM tissue culture human human lymphocytes na na induces micronuclei in the cytochalasin B block micronucleus test with human lymphocytes
Verstraeten et al. 2003 Pediatrics. TM epidemiology human human children retrospective cohort study was conducted using computerized health maintenance organization (HMO) databases childhood vaccines males more affected increased risk of tics
Vojdani et al. 2003 Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. TM clinical human human children lymphocyte receptors and tissue enzyme (DPP IV or CD26); human serum albumin in patients with autism na na bind to lymphocyte receptors and/or tissue enzymes, resulting in autoimmune reaction in children with autism
Kim et al. 2002 Biochim Biophys Acta. TM tissue culture human human HeLa S cells na na stimulates focal adhesion kinase and cytoskeletal changes by redox modulation
Hidalgo et al. 2002 Biol Res. TM tissue culture animal mammal sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal or cardiac mammalian muscle na na increased susceptibility to stimulation by Ca2+ and decreased the inhibitory effect of Mg2+ in skeletal vesicles
Makani et al. 2002 Genes Immun. TM tissue culture human human Jurkat T cells (Human T cell lymphoblast-like cell line) na na induced apoptosis in T cells as determined by TUNEL and propidium iodide assays, suggesting a role of mercury in T cell apoptosis; and enhanced intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced intracellular glutathione (GSH)
Kerst et al. 2002 J Membr Biol. TM tissue culture animal Xenopus laevis (frog) KCNE1-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes na na interacts with the cysteine residue C214 in the S3 segment of KCNQ1, leading to a change of its gating properties.
Müller et al. 2001 Int J Hyg Environ Health. TM tissue culture human human erythrocytic GST T1 (glutathione-S-transferase T1) na na inhibition of the human erythrocytic glutathione-S-transferase T1 (GST T1)
Montero et al. 2001 Cell Calcium. TM tissue culture human human intact HeLa cells na na increased the sensitivity to histamine of ER-Ca(2+)-release by about two orders of magnitude; thimerosal increased the [Ca(2+)](ER) steady-state level in permeabilized cells; and inhibited also plasma membrane Ca(2+)extrusion and increased Ca(2+)(Mn(2+)) entry through the plasma membrane
Chen et al. 2000 Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. TM tissue culture animal guinea pig cochlear outer hair cells na na induced Ca2+ mobilization in isolated guinea pig cochlear outer hair cells
Westphal et al. 2000 Int Arch Occup Environ Health. TM clinical human human Central European individuals with a positive patch-test reaction to thimerosal vs healthy controls na na homozygous gene deletions of the glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 are associated with thimerosal sensitization
Song et al. 2000 Brain Res. TM tissue culture animal rat tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons na na blocked the two types of sodium channels in a dose-dependent manner; the inhibitory effect of thimerosal was much more pronounced in TTX-R sodium channels than TTX-S sodium channels; and the effect of thimerosal was irreversible
Donoso et al. 2000 Biophys J. TM tissue culture animal rabbit triad-enriched sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle na na produced a significant increase of release rate constants and initial release rates at all [Mg(2+)] tested (up to 1 mM), and shifted the K(0.5) value for Mg(2+) inhibition to 101 or 137 microM in triads actively or passively loaded with calcium, respectively. Further oxidation of vesicles with thimerosal completely suppressed the inhibitory effect of [Mg(2+)] on CICR, yielding initial rates of CICR of 2 micromol/(mg x s) in the presence of 1 mM free [Mg(2+)].
Verstraeten et al. 1999 Abstract TM epidemiology human human infants database from 4 HMOs contained immunization, medical visit, and demographic data on over 400,000 infants born 1991 and 1997 postnatal na elevated risk for the following disorders: autism (RR 7.6, 95% Cl = 1.8-31.5), non-organic sleep disorders (RR 5.0, 95% Cl = 1.6-15.9}, and speech disorders (RR 2.1, 95% (1=1.1-4.0)
Mihai et al. 1999 Cell Calcium. TM tissue culture human human calcium receptor in human parathyroid and rMTC6-23 cells na na increases the responsiveness of the calcium receptor in human parathyroid and rMTC6-23 cells
Patrizi et al. 1999 Contact Dermatitis. TM clinical human human children atopic children na na high frequency of sensitization to thimerosal in atopic children
Chen et al. 1998 Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. TM tissue culture animal guinea pig guinea pig cochlear outer hair cells na na induced Ca2+ mobilization in isolated guinea pig cochlear outer hair cells
Karhapää et al. 1996 Cell Calcium. TM tissue culture animal rat GH4C1 pituitary cells na na potently inhibited the Ba2+ currents through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels
Nishio et al. 1996 Neurochem Int. TM tissue culture animal rabbit rabbit blood platelets na na serotonin transport activity into rabbit blood platelets was inhibited
Thrower et al. 1996 Biochem J. TM tissue culture animal rat Ca2+ channel from rat cerebellum na na enhances Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release by both altering the open times of the channel significantly and causing a shift to higher subconductance levels
Wiktorek et al. 1996 Biochem Biophys Res Commun. TM tissue culture animal rat intact glioma C6 cells na na inhibit phosphatidylserine synthesis by 70%,
Wu et al. 1996 FEBS Lett. TM tissue culture animal mouse single pancreatic acinar cells na na modulates the agonist-specific cytosolic Ca2+ oscillatory patterns in single pancreatic acinar cells of mouse
Abramson et al. 1995 J Biol Chem. TM tissue culture animal rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum na na stimulate Ca2+ release from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, inhibit high affinity [3H]ryanodine binding, and modify the channel activity of the reconstituted Ca2+ release protein
Eto et al. 1993 J Toxicol Pathol TM tissue culture animal mice safety of TM adult mice na transformed into inorganic Hg (more than methylHg)
Bootman et al. 1992 J Biol Chem. TM tissue culture human HeLa cells Fura-2-loaded HeLa cells na na stimulated Ca2+ spikes occurred in the absence of extracellular (Ca2+ o), suggesting that they result from mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores
Brunner et al. 1991 Mutagenesis. TM tissue culture animal pig pig brain na na TM led to rapid inhibition of tubulin assembly abd disassembly of microtubules
Withrow et al. 1989 Photochem Photobiol. TM tissue culture animal mouse mouse lymphoma na na TM was toxic to cells and highly mutagenic
Chanez et al. 1989 Neurotoxicology. TM tissue culture animal rat fetus brain, total brain homogenate, synaptosomes and myelin prenatal na inhibition of Na+K+ATPase activity
Chervonskaia et al. 1988 Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. TM tissue culture human human diploid cells cytotoxic action (CTA) of chemical substances contained as admixtures na na toxic at 0.8micrograms/ml; aluminum sulafte toxic at 500 micrograms/ml
Cai et al. 1988 Curr Eye Res. TM animal model rabbit ophthalmic antibodies to lens care re-agents na na delayed and immediate forms of hypersensitivity to the thimerosal conjugates
Kravchenko et al. 1984 Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. TM tissue culture human human cell line L-132 tested DTP vaccine on the cell line L-132 na na in a concentration of 1 in 10,000, contained in one vaccine caused celluar damage
Kravchenko et al. 1982 Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. TM tissue culture human human cell line L-132 tested DTP vaccine on the cell line L-132 na na most toxic effect on cells was caused by components of pertussis antigens and merthiolate solution.
Matheson et al. 1980 J Pediatr. TM case report human human children child given gammaglobulin preserved with TM na na acrodynia or mercury poisoning resulted including nerve damage
Anundi et al. 1979 Acta Pharmacol Toxicol. TM tissue culture animal hepatocytes hepaocytes na na glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation
Fagan et al. 1977 Arch Dis Child. TM clinical human human infants 13 cases of infants with exomphalos treated with TM post natal na 10 out of 13 infants dies; Hg blood and tissue levels above toxic levels for fetuses and adults
Parry abstract 1977 Mutat Res. TM tissue culture fungus yeast cells yeast cells na na induced significant genetic alterations at a level < 1ppb
Heinonen et al. 1977 Publishing Sciences Group (book) TM epidemiology human 50,000 pregnancies studied drug exposure during pregnancy and malformations in the infants prenatal na serotonin transport activity into rabbit blood platelets was inhibited
Blair et al. 1975 Toxicology. TM tissue culture animal monkeys Squirrel monkeys were dosed intranasally na na mercury concentrations were significantly raised over control values in brain (high dose group only), liver, muscle and kidney, but not in bloo
Braaten et al. 1975 Tissue Cell. TM tissue culture animal rat Rat, Wistar-Lewis, fetal 18-20 day gestation; (also neonatal 3-12 day old); primary cultures of endocrine pancreas pre and post natal na destroys fibroblastoid cells
Gasset et al. 1975 Arch Ophthamol. TM animal model animal rabbits rabbits injected prenataly adult and prenatal na caused dose-dependent increase in fetal mortality and was found to cross the placental and blood brain barrier
Axton abstract 1972 Postgraduate Medical Journal TM clinical human human adults and children adults and children na na five out of the six patients died, and necropsy showed extensive renal tubular necrosis in each case, and in two, evidence of diffuse intravascular coagulation.
Itoi et al. 1972 Jpn J Clin Ophthal. TM animal model animal rabbits reproductive health in rabbits prenatal na significantly increased numbers of dead fetuses (up to 18% of fetuses died following exposure) and increased fetal congenital anomalies (up to 9.1% of fetuses developed congenital anomalies following exposure)
Nelson & Gottshall 1967 Appl Microbiol. TM animal model animal mouse mice injected with pertussis vaccine with TM and without TM na na pertussis vaccines preserved with 0.01%Merthiolate are more toxic for mice than unpreserved vaccines prepared from the same parent concentrate and containing the same number of organisms. An increase in mortality was observed when Merthiolate was injected separately, before or after an unpreserved saline suspension of pertussis vaccine
Ellis 1943 Arch Ophthamol. TM clinical human patients TM used in ophthamic ointment na na merthiolate is capable of causing an inflammation of the mucous membrane in patients
Kinsella 1941 Ann Intern Med. TM clinical human patients with endocarditis 13 cases of patients treated with TM for endocarditis na na all patients receiving the Thimerosal treatment died, and that following autopsy, some of the patients were determined to have died of mercury poisoning from the Thimerosal treatment.
Welch & Hunter 1940 Am J Public Health. TM tissue culture human & animal human & Guinea pig blood varying dilutions na na TM was more toxic for human cells than bacterial cells (toxicity index=5.7) and was among the 10 germicides tested, had the ninth worst toxicity index.
Welch 1939 J. Immunol. TM tissue culture mammalian whole blood compared the relative toxicity of Thimerosal with other germicide compounds, e.g., phenol or iodine na na TM was, by several orders of magnitude, the most toxic compound tested
Cummins 1937 Lancet TM animal model animal Guinea pigs inoculated Guinea pigs na na guinea-pigs inoculated with 1 c.cm. of the mixtures after 24 hours all died
Salle & Lazarus 1935 Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. TM tissue culture animal embryonic tissue compared emryonic cells to bacterial cells na na Thimerosal 35.3 times more toxic to embryonic cells than bacterial cells
Powell & Jamieson 1931 Am J Hyg. TM animal model animal animals toxicity studies na na significant numbers of animals died within days of exposure
Smithburn et al. 1930 J. Am. Med. Assoc. TM human human human 21 adults with meningitis were given an injection IV 1% solution TM na na 20 of 21 people died with 24 hours, the 21st person started to recover, but after a second dose, he died

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